Welcome to the Virtual Foot Hospital!
Scroll down to find answers to many questions
on Foot Health Topics

The Virtual Foot Hospital  is part of www.FootDoc.ca, a website owned and operated by the Achilles Foot Health Centre and Dr. S. A. Schumacher of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. Information contained in these pages is intended for informational purposes only, and is no substitute for a proper podiatric medical examination. 

 

The Top 10 Search Topics
The Ten Most Common Search Topics at 
 Virtual Foot Hospital

To make your search a little easier, the 10 most frequent searches for information regarding the feet follow immediately below.  

If your topic is not among those listed below, scroll down the page to view a much larger selection of topics.


Arch Pain, Fasciitis, Heel Pain, Heel Spurs

Pain in this region of the foot is one of the most common afflictions we treat.  We discuss some of the most common causes of heel pain, including Plantar Fasciitis and Heel Spurs both beneath and behind the heel bone.  We also review the most common treatments.  This page also links to our page on extra-corporeal shock wave therapy

 


Orthoses (Orthotics)

There is no minimal training required for making orthotic appliances in British Columbia, and there is a lot of poor, misrepresented product on the market.  So it's definitely a "buyer beware" climate out there.  Here we discuss various types of orthotics available, what they can and can not do, and what to look for when seeking biomechanical help through orthoses. 

 


Flat Feet and Pronation

These terms are often used interchangeably, but they actually refer to different things. We'll learn the difference on this page.  We'll also learn about the wide variety of complaints associated with these conditions, including arch and heel pain, bunions, hammertoes, neuromas, and pain in the ball of the foot.

 


Bunions

We have three major pages on bunions.  The link above is our gateway page, including a general discussion of bunions, what they are, how the develop.  From there you can visit a page that discusses how we assess bunions on X-ray and another page that discusses many of the most common types of bunion surgery.   
 

Hammertoes (Contracted Toes)

Painful, contracted toes are one of the most frequent compliants seen in podiatric practice.  On this page we discuss the various types of contracted toes that may develop, their causes, and how they may be treated.  (They're not all treated the same.) 

 


Stiff Big Toe Joint  

On this page we discuss Hallux Limitus and Hallux Rigidis, the technical names for stiff, arthritic great toe joints. 
We'll discuss the causes of this condition, and review some of the most common and helpful treatments, both conservative and surgical. 
 

Pain in the Ball of the Foot

On this page we review many of the most common causes of pain in the ball of the foot and discuss how they can be differentiated and how they may be treated, usually through conservative means. 
 

Nail Problems

Here we discuss the diagnosis, causes, treatment, and prevention of common nail complaints.  Topics on this page include ingrown nails, thickened, discoloured, and misshapen nails, fungal nails, and psoriatic nails.  
 

Morton's Neuromas

The Morton's Neuroma is one of the most over-diagnosed and improperly-treated conditions of the foot.  We review the diagnosis of a Morton's Neuroma, discuss its causes, and examine the various treatment options for this unpleasant, sometimes debilitating condition.   

Diabetes

Diabetes is the single largest cause of amputations, and one of the most common causes of pain in the foot.  Infections, ingrown nails, ulcers, poor circulation, diminished sensation, and a host of other foot complaints are associated with diabetes.  The good news is that most of these complaints can be avoided.   
 

 

If you did not find your topic listed above, scroll down the list below for a more thorough listing of Foot Health Topics. 

 

Topics Listed A - Z

A
Abduction

Abductor Digiti Quinti Muscle
Abductor Digiti Minimi Muscle
Abductor Hallucis Muscle
ABI 
Absorbable Pins  
Absorbable Screws  
Accessory Bones  
Accessory Navicular  
Accommodative Orthoses

Achilles Tendinitis  
Achilles Tendon Ruptures  
Acral Melanoma

Adduction
Adductor Hallucis
Aerobic Infections
AIDS  
Akin Procedure  
Alcoholism And The Feet
 
Alternative Medicine
Amputations
Anaerobic Infections
 
Anatomy Of The Foot And Leg
Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

Angiography
Ankle Arm Index
Ankle Foot Orthoses (AFO's)
Ankle Braces
Ankle Brachial Index
Ankle Fractures
Ankle Sprains  
Anonychia

Anterior
Anterior Spinothalamic Tract

Anterior Talofibular Ligament  
Anterior Tibial Artery
Anterior Tibial Muscle

Antibiotics  
Antibiotics Before Surgery  
Anxieties Tibialis 

AO Fixation
 
Apophysis
Apophysitis
 
Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen
Arch Pain  
Arcuate Osteotomy
 
Arterial Insufficiency
Arthritis  
Arthrocentesis

Arthrodesis Procedure (Bunion)

Arthrodesis Procedure (Hammertoe)
 
Arthroereisis Procedure
Arthropathy  
Arthroplasty Procedure  
Artificial Joints  
Ascending Cellulitis
Aspiration
Athlete’s Foot
Atrophied Fat Pad
 
Ausptiz' Sign
Austin Procedure  
Avascular Necrosis
AVN

Axonotmesis

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

B
Bacterial Endocarditis

Bacterial Infections  
Bar  
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Baxter's Nerve
Benign
Berndt-Hardy Classification
Bipartite Sesamoids  
Blisters  
Bone Cement
 
Bone Culture
Bone Graft
Bone Infections 
Bone Islands
Bone Lengthening
 
Bone Matrix
Bone Transport  
Bone Scans  
Bone Tumours
Bones Of The Foot And Leg
Bonney-Kessel Procedure  
Bowlegs
Brachymetapody
Brachymetatarsals
Brachymetatarsia

Breslow's Classification System

Broken Bones  
Brown Tumour

Bunion (Basic Background)  
Bunion (Structural Deformity) 
Bunion (Positional Deformity)
Bunion (Combined Deformity)

Bunion (Radiographic Evaluation)
 
Bunion Shields
Bunion (Surgeries)
 
Bunionette  
Burns 
Bursitis

Buttress Plates    

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca 

C
Calcaneal Apophysitis  
Calcaneal Fractures
Calcaneofibular Ligament
Calcaneus
Calcific Tendinosis
Calcification
Calcium (In Bone)
Calcium Hydroxyapatite
Calcium Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease
Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Deposition   
Callus Distraction
 
Calluses
 
Calor

Cancers
Capsulitis  
Cardinal Planes
Cartilage Damage
CAT Scans  
Cavus
CBWO
Celestone
Cellulitis
Cerclage Wire
Cerebral Palsy
Ceretec Scans
Chaput-Tillaux Fracture

Charcot Foot
Charcot-Leyden Crystal Deposition
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Cheilectomy Procedure  
Chevron Procedure  
Children's Foot Problems
Cholesterol Crystal Deposition
Chondroblastoma
Chondroma
Chondromalacia Patellae
Chondromyxoid Fibroma
Chondrosarcoma
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Cicatrix
Cipro
Ciprofloxin

Cerclage Wire  
Circulation Of The Foot And Leg
Circulation Problems
Clark's Classification System
Claw Toes  
Claudication
Closed Reduction
Closing Base Wedge Osteotomy
 
Club Foot
Coalitions
 
Compartment Syndrome
Complications of Surgery
Contracted Toes  
Corns  
Corticospinal Tract
Corticosteroids
Cortisone

Coxa Valgum
Coxa Varum
Crescentic Base Osteotomy Procedure
Crescentic Reverdin Procedure

Crohn's Disease
 
Crystal Deposition Disorders  
CT Scans  
Cuboid  
Cuneiform Bones  
Curly Toes

Cystine Crystal Deposition

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

D
Danis-Weber Fractures
Deep
Deep Transverse Metatarsal Ligament
Deep Venous Thrombosis
Dehiscence

Delayed Unions
Dexamethasone

Diabetes  
Digital Pressures
Dislocations (Toes)
Dislocations (LisFranc's
)
Distal
Dolor
Doppler
Dorsal 
Dorsal Interosseous Muscles
Dorsalis Pedis Artery 
Dorsiflexion
Double Z Skin Plasty
 
DRATO Procedure  
Dry Skin
Dupuytren's Contracture
DVT
Dwight Classification System
Dynamic Compression Plates
 

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

E
Ekman-Lobstein Disease
Eczema
Edema

Ekbom Syndrome
Elderly
Elevated First Ray
Emollients
Epiphyseal Plate Disorders
Epiphysis
Equinus  
Essex-Lopresti Classification System
ESWT
Evaluating A Bunion For Surgery
 
Evans Procedure
Eversion
Ewing's Sarcoma
Ex Fix  
Exostoses  
Extensor Digitorum Brevis 
Extensor Digitorum Longus 
Extensor Hallucis Brevis 
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Extensor Substitution  
External Fixation  
Extra Bones
 
Extra Toes
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy
Extrapyramidal Tract

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

F
Familial Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy

FAQ on Routine Foot Care
 
Fasciitis

Fat Pad Atrophy  
Fiberglass Casts
Fiberglass Orthoses
Fibromas  
Fibromatosis
Fibromyalgia
Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone

Fibula
First Aid  
First Generation Cephalosporins
Fifth Metatarsal Fractures
First Metatarsal Fractures

First MTPJ Arthrodesis (Fusion
First MTPJ Arthroplasty
 
Fixation Of Bone  
Flat Feet 
Flesh-Eating Disease
 
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Flexor Hallucis Longus
Flexor Stabilization  
Flexor Substitution  
Flexor Tendon Transfer
 
Foreign Bodies  
Fourth Generation Cephalosporins
Fractures  
Fractures of the Heel
Freezing of Tissues (Frostbite, Frostnip)
Freiberg's Disease
Friedrich's Ataxia
Frontal Plane

Frost Procedure
Frostnip
Frostbite 

Functio Laesa
Functional Orthoses
Fungal Infections Of Skin  
Fungal Infections Of Nail

Return Home: 
www.FootDoc.ca

G
Gait Abnormalities
Gait Plates
Gallium Scans

Ganley Splint
Ganglions  
Gangrene  
Gas Gangrene  
Gastrocnemius Muscle
Genu Valgum
Genu Varum
Geriatric Feet
Girdlestone-Taylor Procedure
 
Glucose
Glucose Tolerance Test
 

Glycosylated Hemoglobin  
Gotch (Gotch and Kreuz) Procedure
 
Gout  
Gouty Arthritis
 
Grafts (Bone)
Grafts (Skin)
Gram Negative Infections  
Gram Positive Infections
 
Granuloma
Granuloma Excision

Growing Pains
Growth Plate Abnormalities
 

Return Home: 
www.FootDoc.ca

H
Haglund's Deformity  
Hallux Abducto Valgus  
Hallux Abducto Valgus (Structural Deformity) 
Hallux Abducto Valgus (Positional Deformity)
Hallux Abducto Valgus (Combined Deformity)

Hallux Limitus  
Hallux Rigidis
 
Hallux Valgus  
Hallux Varus
Hammertoes (Contracted Toes)  
Hang Nail
Hansen's Disease  
Hapalonychia
Hardcastle Classification System
HAV
HAV (Structural Deformity)
HAV (Positional Deformity)
HAV (Combined Deformity)

Heel Fractures
Heel Pain  

Heel Spurs  
Hematoma
Hemoglobin A1c 
Hepatitis And The Feet
 
Heyman Procedure
Hgb A1c
 
Hibbs Procedure
 
High-Arched Feet
HIV And The Feet  
Hoffman Procedure
Hoffman-Clayton Procedure
Hohmann Procedure  
Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease
 
Hypermobile First Ray
Hyperostoses
 
Hypertrophic Scars

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

I
ICD-9 Codes  
Ilizarov Technique  
Imaging (X-Ray, MRI, CT, etc.)
Implants  
Incisions
Inclusion Cyst
 
Indium Scans  
Infections (General)
Infections--How To Recognize an Infection
Infections Of Bone  
Infections Of Joint
Infections Of Soft Tissue  
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
 
Ingrown Nails
Ingrown Nail Procedures (Permanent)
Insertional Calcific Tendinosis
 
In-toed Gait
Intermediate Dorsal Cutaneous Nerve
Intermittent Claudication
Intractable Plantar Keratoses (IPK's)  
Intraosseous Ganglion
Inversion
Inverted Orthoses

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

J
Jacoby Osteotomy
Jahss Classification System
Joint Aspiration
Joint Infections
Joint Pain
Jones Fracture
Jones Tenosuspension Procedure
Joplin's Neuroma
Juvara Procedure
 

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

K
K-Wires
 
Kalish Procedure 
Kaplan Procedure
Keller Procedure
 
Keloids
Keratolytics
Kessel-Bonney Procedure
 
Kohler's Disease
Koilonychia

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L
Lacerations
Lambrinudi Procedure  
Lapidus Procedure
 
Laser Surgery
Lateral
Lateral Ankle Instability
Lateral Dorsal Cutaneous Nerve
Lateral Plantar Nerve
Lateral Spinothalamic Tract

Latex Shields/Latex Moulds
Lauge-Hansen Classification System
Le Fort-Wagstaffe Fractures
Ledderhose Disease
Leiomyomas
Lengthening Bone  
Lentigo Malignant Melanoma
Leprosy
 
Leukonychia
Ligament Injuries
Lipomas
Lisfranc Injuries
Lisfranc's Joint
Logroscino Procedure  
Looser's Lines
Louisan-Balacescu Procedure
 
Ludloff Procedure  
Lumbricale Muscles
Lupus
 
Lymphangitis
Lymphoma

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M
Macrophages
Magnet Therapy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging  
Maisonneuve Fracture

Malignant
Mallet Toes  
Matrixectomy 
Mau Procedure  
McBride Procedure  
Medial

Medial Dorsal Cutaneous Nerve
Medial Plantar Nerve

Melanoma
Melorrheostosis
Metabolic Bone Diseases

Metastasis
Metatarsals
Metatarsalgia  
Metatarsus Adductus
Midtarsal Joint
Mini Ex Fix
 
Minor Wound Care  
Mitchell Procedure  
Moisturizers
Monosodium Urate
 
Morton's Neuroma
Moulded Shoes
MRI  
Mulder's Sign
Multiple Myeloma
Muscles Of The Foot and Leg
 
Muscle Cramps
Muscle Stretching
Muscular Dystrophy
Myelin
Myelin Sheath

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

N
Nail Conditions (a glossary of terms)

Nail Fungus
Nail, Ingrown

Nail Problems
Nail Surgery
Navicular  
Necrotizing Fasciitis  
Neoplasms (Benign, Bony)
Neoplasms (Benign Soft Tissue)
Neoplasms (Malignant Bony)
Neoplasms (Malignant Soft Tissue)
Nerve Trauma
Nerves Of The Foot And Leg
Neurofibromatosis
Neurological Exam
Neurolysis
Neuromas  
Neuromuscular Diseases
Neurology
Neuropathy

Neuropraxia
Neurotmesis

Neutralization Plates
 
90-90 Skin Plasty
Nodular Melanoma
Non-Ossifying Fibroma
Non-Unions  
Numbness (Peripheral Neuropathy)

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O
Off-Set V Procedure  
Onychalgia
Onychauxis
Onychia
Onychocryptosis
Onychodystrophy
Onychogryphosis
Onychoincurvatum
Onycholysis
Onychomalacia
Onychomycosis
Onychophagia
Onychophosis
Onychotillomania
Onychorrexhis
Onyx

Open Reduction Internal Fixation

Opening Base Wedge Procedure  
ORIF
Orthopaedic Appliances
Orthoses  
Orthotics  
Os Calcis
 
Os Tibiale Externum  
Os Trigonum  
Os Vesalinum
 
Osgood-Schlatter's Disease
Ossicles  
Ossification
Osteitis Fibrosa
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica
Osteoarthritis
Osteoblast 
Osteoblastoma
Osteochondritis Dessicans
Osteochondroma
Osteochondrosis
Osteoclast
Osteodystrophy, Renal
Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenic
Osteogenic Sarcoma

Osteoid
Osteoid Osteoma
Osteolytic
Osteoma

Osteomalacia

Osteomyelitis
 
Osteonecrosis
Osteopenia
Osteopetrosis
Osteopoikilosis

Osteop
orosis
Osteosarcoma
Osteoset 
Osteosynthesis

Out-toed Gait
Overlapping Toes

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

P
P & A Procedure

Paget's Disease
Parathyroid Hormone
Partial Matrixectomy
Peabody Procedure  
Pediatric Problems
Penicillin
Penicillinase
Penicillinase-Resistant Antibiotics

PER injuries
Periostitis
Peripheral Neuropathy
Peroneal Muscles
Peroneal Muscular Atrophy Disease

Peroneal Nerve 
Peroneus Brevis Muscle
Peroneus Longus Muscle
Peroneus Tertius Muscle
Pes Planus
Pes Cavus
Phalanges
Phenol Procedure
Phenol & Alcohol Procedure
Photoplethysmography
Pilon Fracture

Pins (K-wires)  
Plantar
Plantar Aponeurosis
Plantar Fascia
Plantar Fasciitis
Plantar Fat Pad
Plantar Fat Pad Atrophy

Plantar Fibromatosis  
Plantar Interosseous Muscles
Plantar Off-Set V Procedure
Plantar Plate
Plantar Warts  
Plantar Wing Procedure
Plantarflexed Metatarsal
Plantarflexion
Plantaris Muscle
Planus
Plaster Casts For AFO's
Plaster Casts For Moulded Shoes
Plaster Casts For Orthopaedic Appliances
Plaster Casts For Orthoses
Plaster Impressions

Plastic Surgery Techniques
Plates  
Platonychia
PMMA  
Podagra
Polio
Polydactylism
Polymethylmethacrylate
 
Porokeratoses  
Post Procedure  
Posterior
Posterior Heel Spur
Posterior Spinothalamic Tract
Posterior Talofibular Ligament  
Posterior Tibial Artery
Posterior Tibial Muscle
Posterior Tibial Muscle Dysfunction
Posterior Tibial Nerve
Posterior Tibial Tendon
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

PPG
Pre-Operative Bunion Evaluation
Prednisone
Primary Tumours
Pronation (And Flat Feet)  
Pronation (Defined)
Pronation Abduction Injuries
Pronation Dorsiflextion Injuries
Pronation External Rotation Injuries

Prophylactic Antibiotics  
Proudflesh
Proximal
Proximal Chevron Procedure  
Proximal Metatarsal Osteotomy
 
Pruritis
Pseudogout  
Psoriasis
Psoriatic Arthritis
 
PTTD

Pump Bump  
Pyramidal Tract

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

Q
Q-Angle
Quadratus Plantae
Quinolones

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R
Radiographic Angles
Radiographic Assessment of Bunions
Radiographic Assessment of Met Adductus
Radiographic Assessment of Tailors Bunions

Radiographs
 
Radiosurgery
Raynaud's Disease
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy  
Reflexes
Refsum's Disease
Reiter's Disease  
Relaxed SkinTension Lines
Renal Osteodystrophy
Restless Leg Syndrome

Reticulospinal Tract
Retrocalcaneal Exostoses  
Reudi-Allgower Classification

Reverdin Procedure  
Reverdin-Green Procedure  
Reverdin-Laird Procedure  
Reverdin-Todd Procedure
 
Rheumatism  
Rheumatoid Arthritis  
Rheumatoid Factor
Richie Brace
Rickets
Rockerbottom Shoes
Roussy-Levy Syndrome
Roux Procedure
Rowe Classification System
RSD  
RSTL
Rubor

Return Home:  www.FootDoc.ca

S
Sagittal Plane
Salter-Harris Classification

Saphenous Nerve
Sarcoma
Sausage Digit
Sausage Toe

Scars
Scarf Procedure 
Schaeffer Plates
Schumacher Procedure
Sciatica
 
Screws  
Scurvy
Second Generation Cephalosporins
Secondary Tumours

Seddon Classification System
Seed Corns

Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments
Septic Arthritis
Septic Joint
SER injuries
Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies
Sesamoids  

Sesamoid Fractures  
Sesamoiditis  
Sever's Disease  
Sharp Nail Procedures
Shin Splints  
Sickle-Cell Disease
Silicone Joints
 
Silicone Gels
Silicone Sheets
Silver Procedure 

Sinus Tarsi
Sinus Tarsi Syndrome
Skin Cancer
Skin Grafts
SLE
Smelly Feet  
Smoking
Soft Tissue Tumours
Soleus Muscle

Sports Medicine  
Spinal Tract
Spinocerebellar Tract
Spinothalamic Tract

Spondyloarthropathies
Spondyloarthropathy

Sprains 
Spurs  
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Stamm Procedure  
Staples  
Static Compression Plates  
Steinman Pins  
Steroid Crystal Deposition
Steroid Injections
Steroid Medications (Pills)

Stiff Big Toe Joint  
Still's Disease  
Stinky Feet  
Stress Fractures 
Stretching
Stroke
STJ
Subtalar Arthrodesis
Subtalar Joint
Subtalar Joint Fusion
Subungual Exostosis
Sudeck's Atrophy
Superficial
Superficial Spreading Melanoma
Supination
Supination Adduction Injuries
Supination External Rotation Injuries
Suppan Nail Procedure
Suppan CAP Procedure
Sural Nerve

Surgeries For Bunions  
Surgical Evaluation of Bunions
 
Sutherland Classification System

Sweaty Feet  
Swelling of the Feet
Syndactylization
Synovitis 
Systemic Lupus Erythematosis  

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T
Tailor’s Bunion  
Talus
Tarsal Coalitions
 
Tarsal Tunnel  
Taylor Procedure  
Technetium Scans  
Tendinitis  
Tendinosis
Tenosynovitis
Tenotomy Procedure
 
Terminal Syme Procedure
Tetanus
Tetanus
Prophylaxis Protocol  
Thurston-Holland Sign
Tibia  
Tibial Nerve

Tibial Valgum
Tibial Varum

Tibialis Anterior Muscle
Tibialis Posterior Dysfunction
Tillaux-Chaput Fractures
Tinea Unguium

Toe Pressures
Toe Walking
Tophaceous Deposits
Tophi
Tophus
Total Matrixectomy
Tourniquets
Trachyonychia

Transverse Plane
Trethoan Procedure  
Triple Arthrodesis
Tumours, Benign (Bone)
Tumours, Benign (Soft Tissue)
Tumours, Malignant (Bone)
Tumours, Malignant (Soft Tissue)
Turf Toe

U
UCBL Orthoses
Uhke's Disease
Ulcerative Colitis
 
Ulcers
Unguis
Unguis Incarnatus

Unicameral Bone Cyst
UTSA Classification System

Return Home: 
www.FootDoc.ca

V
V-M Skin Plasty
V-Y Skin Plasty
Valgus
Van Ness Procedure  
Varus

Vascular Insufficiency
Vascular Testing

Venous Insufficiency
Verrucae  
Viral Infections  
Vogler Procedure  
Volkmann's Fracture
von Recklinghausen's Disease of Bone

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W
Wagner Classification System
Wagstaffe-Le Fort Fracture
Waldvogel Classification System
Walking Abnormalities
 
Warts  
Waterman Procedure  
WBC
WBC Differential
Wedge Resection (of Nail)
Weil Osteotomy
Weinstock Procedure 
White Blood Count
Whitman-Roberts Plates
Wilson Procedure  
Winograd Procedure
Wires  

Wittmaack-Ekbom Syndrome

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X
X-Rays  
Xerosis

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Y
Y-V Skin Plasty
Youngswick Procedure  

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Z
Z-Lengthenings
Z-Osteotomy  
Z-Plasty
Zadik Procedure

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S. A. Schumacher, D.P.M., F.A.C.F.A.S., F.A.C.F.A.O.M.  
Dr. S. A. Schumacher, Podiatric Corporation  

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